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NAVAS 1212 history

发布日期:2013/12/10 10:18:52


The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab (معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.[6] The Christian forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his rivals, Sancho VII of NavarrePere II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal in battle[7] against the Almohad rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula. The Caliph al-Nasir (Miramamolín in the Spanish chronicles) led the Almohad army, made up of people from the whole Almohad empire. Most of the men in the Almohad army came from the African side of the empire.

The crushing defeat of the Almohads significantly hastened their decline both in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Maghreb a decade later. This would give further momentum to the Christian Reconquest begun by the kingdoms of northern Iberia centuries before, resulting in a sharp reduction in the already declining power of the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula. Shortly after the battle, the Castilians took Baeza and then Úbeda, major fortified cities near the battlefield, and gateways to invade Andalusia. Thereafter, Ferdinand III of Castile took Cordova in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248; then he took ArcosMedina-SidoniaJerez and Cadiz. After this chain of victories, only Ferdinand's death prevented the Castilians from crossing the Gibraltar Strait to take the war to the heartland of the Almohad empire.[citation needed] Ferdinand III died in Seville on May 30, 1252, when a plague spread over the southern part of the Iberian peninsula while he was preparing his army and fleet to cross the Straits of Gibraltar. On the Mediterranean coast, James I of Aragon, proceeded to conquer the Balearic Islands (from 1228 over the following four years) and Valencia (the city capitulated September 28, 1238).

By the year 1252, the Almohad empire was almost over, at the mercy of another emerging African power. In 1269, a new association of African tribes, the Marinid, had taken control of the Maghreb, and most of the former Almohad empire was under their rule. Later, the Marinids tried to recover the former Almohad territories in the Iberian peninsula, but they were definitively defeated by Alfonso XI, and King Afonso IV of Portugal in the Battle of Salado, the last major military encounter between large Christian and Muslim armies in the Iberian peninsula.

 

 

1212年7月16日的纳瓦斯德托洛萨(Navas de Tolosa)战役在阿拉伯的历史上被称为乌卡布之战,这是收复失地运动和西班牙中世纪历史的一个重大转折点。基督教联军之首卡斯蒂利亚国王阿方索八世,联合纳瓦拉国王桑乔七世、阿拉贡国王佩德罗二世以及葡萄牙国王阿方索二世,一起对抗伊比利亚南半部伊斯兰教的阿尔摩哈德王朝。

不过,基督教各国无法好好把握这个机会一举清除伊比利亚的伊斯兰势力。卡斯蒂利亚和阿拉贡的国王都在战后不久逝世,而他们的子嗣,却因为争夺王位而导致国家内乱。此外,急于独大的莱昂王国与葡萄牙王国虽然得以扩张势力,但仍未能进一步削弱阿尔摩哈德王朝的势力。结果,基督教各国耽误近十年才能再次反攻伊斯兰势力。

当时,伊斯兰教的统治极大的阻碍了西班牙葡萄酒产业的发展,因为他们信奉的《古兰经》中禁止饮用酒精饮料。

直到收复失地运动结束后,基督教政权经历数个世纪之后在伊比利亚半岛彻底击败伊斯兰势力,葡萄酿造业才真真的步入鼎盛时期,重建的宗教社区和修道院在此时起到了非常大的作用,修道士和修女致力于还原酿酒传统。葡萄酒在他们的宗教仪式上是必须品,不止于此,他们还将酒供给当地人和朝圣者品用。由此,葡萄酒再一次在修道院和寺院中重拾往日盛况,而后更向其它地方扩展。

虽然在当时并没有完全击败伊斯兰教的势力,但1212年的纳瓦斯德托洛萨(Navas de Tolosa)战役在西班牙葡萄酒的发展史上仍旧有着重大的意义。